Three recent papers, including one by Kotewicz et al. (2016) in this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, show that Legionella deploys a novel form of ubiquitylation to generate its replicative vacuole. Without E1 and E2 enzymes, SidE effectors ubiquitylate serine residues in substrates via an ADP-ribosylated ubiquitin intermediate.
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