Objective: The present study aimed to examine the association between different breakfast consumption patterns and vitamin intakes and blood vitamin concentrations in European adolescents.
Design: Breakfast consumption was assessed by a questionnaire. Vitamin intake was calculated from two 24 h recalls. Blood vitamin and total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations were analysed from fasting blood samples.
Setting: The European Commission-funded HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study.
Subjects: Participants were 1058 (52·8 % females) European adolescents (aged 12·5-17·5 years) from ten cities.
Results: Lower vitamin D and vitamin C concentrations were observed in male and female breakfast skippers than in consumers (P<0·05). Female breakfast consumers presented higher holo-transcobalamin and lower tHcy (P<0·05), while males had higher cobalamin concentrations, compared with skippers (P<0·05). Higher vitamin D and total folate intakes were observed in adolescents who consumed breakfast compared with skippers (P<0·05). Likewise, female consumers had higher intakes of vitamin B6 and vitamin E than occasional consumers (P<0·05).
Conclusions: Regular breakfast consumption is associated with higher blood vitamin D and cobalamin concentrations in males and with higher vitamin D and holo-transcobalamin and lower tHcy concentrations in females. Moreover, breakfast consumption is associated with high intakes of vitamin D and total folate in both sexes, and with high intakes of vitamin B6 and vitamin E in females.
Keywords: Adolescents; Breakfast; Vitamin D.