Depression is linked to hyperglycaemia via suboptimal diabetes self-management: A cross-sectional mediation analysis

J Psychosom Res. 2017 Mar;94:17-23. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2016.12.015. Epub 2016 Dec 29.

Abstract

Objective: To analyse if the association between depressive symptoms and hyperglycaemia is mediated by diabetes self-management.

Methods: 430 people with diabetes (57.7% type 1, 42.3% type 2) were cross-sectionally assessed using validated self-report scales for depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)) and diabetes self-management (Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire (DSMQ)); HbA1c was analysed simultaneously in a central laboratory. Structural equation modelling was used to test if the association between depressive symptoms and hyperglycaemia (HbA1c) was mediated by suboptimal self-management in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

Results: The hypothesised model of depressive symptoms, diabetes self-management and hyperglycaemia fit the data well for both diabetes types (SRMR≤0.04, TLI≥0.99, CFI>0.99, RMSEA≤0.02 for both models). In both the type 1 and type 2 diabetes group, higher depressive symptoms were associated with lower self-management (P<0.001) and lower self-management was associated with higher HbA1c (P<0.001). Results indicated that the association between depressive symptoms and hyperglycaemia was significantly mediated by suboptimal diabetes self-management in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients (P<0.001). Significant direct associations between depressive symptoms and hyperglycaemia, not mediated by self-management, could not be observed.

Conclusions: This study provides good evidence supporting that depression is linked to hyperglycaemia via suboptimal diabetes self-management in both major diabetes types.

Keywords: Depressive symptoms; Diabetes self-care; HbA(1c); Hyperglycaemia; Mediation; Mood disorder.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Depression / complications*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / complications*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hyperglycemia / complications
  • Hyperglycemia / psychology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Self Care*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires