Undesirable deformation of the stent can induce a significant amount of injure not only to the blood vessel but also to the plaque. The objective of this study was to reduce/minimize these undesirable deformations by the application of Functionally Graded Materials (FGM). To do this, Finite Element (FE) method was employed to simulate the expansion of a stent and the corresponding displacement of the stenosis plaque. Three hyperelastic plaque types as well as five elastoplastic stents were simulated. Dogboning, foreshortening, maximum stress in the plaque, and the pressure which is needed to fully expand the stent for different stent materials, were acquired. While all FGMs had lower dogboning in comparison to the stents made of the uniform materials, the stent with the lowest heterogeneous index displayed the lowest amount of dogboning. Steel stent showed the lowest foreshortening and fully expansion pressure but the difference was much lower than that the one for dogboning. Therefore, the FGM with the heterogeneous index of 0.5 is expected to exhibit the most suitable results. In addition, the results revealed that the material parameters has crucial effects on the deformation of the stent and, as a result, as a design point of view the FGM parameters can be tailored to achieve the goal of the biomechanical optimization.
Keywords: Coronary stent; Dogboning; Finite element method; Functionally graded material; Vascular injury.
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