The aim of this study was to compare the use of beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) (chronOS) with autogenous bone grafts alone in maxillary sinus elevation surgery. The test samples were β-TCP alone, β-TCP mixed with autogenous bone grafts (1:1), and autogenous bone grafts alone. Twelve maxillary sinuses were grafted with β-TCP (group 1), nine with β-TCP+autogenous bone graft (group 2), and 12 with autogenous bone graft (group 3). After 6 months, biopsies were obtained concurrent to the placement of dental implants; these were subjected to histomorphometric analysis and immunohistochemical analysis for runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The average bone formation in group 1 was 46.3±11.6% in the pristine bone region, 47.6±9.9% in the intermediate region, and 44.8±22.1% in the apical region; in group 2, values were 35.0±15.8%, 32.5±13.7%, and 32.8±16.0%, respectively; in group 3, values were 43.1±16.0%, 31.0±13.0%, and 46.1±16.3%, respectively. Immunostaining of samples in group 2 showed high cellular activity and immature bone; this differed from groups 1 and 3, in which mature bone was demonstrated. Thus, this study showed that β-TCP presents the same behaviour as autogenous bone graft, which makes it a good bone substitute.
Keywords: bone graft; immunohistochemistry; maxillary sinus.
Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.