Activity of inflammatory bowel disease influences the expression of cytokines in gingival tissue

Cytokine. 2017 Jul;95:1-6. doi: 10.1016/j.cyto.2017.01.016. Epub 2017 Feb 9.


This study assessed the cytokine expression in gingival and intestinal tissues from periodontitis patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and evaluated if IBD activity is a covariate to the amount of gingival cytokines. Paired gingival and intestinal tissues were collected from 21 patients and homogenised using a cell disruptor. Cytokine expression (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-25, IL-31, IL-33, IL-17A, IL-17F, IFN-γ, sCD40L, and TNF-α) was evaluated using bead-based multiplex technology. An inflammation score was developed using the intestinal cytokines that showed good accuracy to discriminate IBD active patients from those in remission and then a similar score was applied to gingival tissue. IL-4, IL-10 and IL-21 expressions were significantly increased in gingival tissue from patients with an active disease as compared to those with a disease in remission. The inflammation score (mean value of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-21, and sCD40L) was significantly higher in gingival tissue from patients with IBD activity. There was a significant correlation between gingival and intestinal inflammation scores (rho=0.548; P=0.01). Significantly higher IL-23 and IFN-γ levels and lower IL-31 and TNF-α levels were observed in gingival tissues than in intestinal ones. Activity of inflammatory bowel disease influenced the cytokine expression in gingival tissue.

Keywords: Cytokines; Inflammatory bowel disease; Periodontitis.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Cytokines / metabolism*
  • Female
  • Gene Expression
  • Gingiva / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / immunology
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / drug therapy
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / immunology*
  • Intestines / immunology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Periodontitis / immunology*
  • Remission Induction
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Young Adult


  • Cytokines
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha