Epidemiology, environmental risk factors and genetics of Parkinson's disease

Presse Med. 2017 Mar;46(2 Pt 1):175-181. doi: 10.1016/j.lpm.2017.01.001. Epub 2017 Feb 8.


Parkinson's disease (PD) is a frequent neurodegenerative disease with a premotor phase that lasts several years. Risk factors that have been linked to PD are tobacco, caffeine, black tea, pesticides and calcium channel blockers. Some risk factors may be due to inverse causality (e.g. changes in personality during the premotor phase). The genetics of PD are complex with a contribution of Mendelian (e.g. SNCA, LRRK2, Parkin, Pink1,…) and non-Mendelian factors (e.g. single nucleotide polymorphisms). Glucocerebrosidase gene mutations (Gaucher disease) are currently the strongest genetic risk factor for PD. Studying risk factors will help to better understand the pathogenesis of PD.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Age Distribution
  • Age of Onset
  • Caffeine
  • Causality
  • Gene-Environment Interaction
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Humans
  • Mutation
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Parkinson Disease* / epidemiology
  • Parkinson Disease* / etiology
  • Parkinson Disease* / genetics
  • Parkinson Disease* / psychology
  • Pesticides / adverse effects
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Distribution
  • Smoking / epidemiology
  • Uric Acid / blood
  • alpha-Synuclein / genetics


  • Pesticides
  • alpha-Synuclein
  • Uric Acid
  • Caffeine