The hematopoietic syndrome of acute radiation syndrome (h-ARS) is characterized by severe bone marrow aplasia, resulting in a significant risk for bleeding, infections, and death. To date, clinical management of h-ARS is limited to supportive care dictated by the level of radiation exposure, with a high incidence of mortality in those exposed to high radiation doses. The ideal therapeutic agent would be an immediately available, easily distributable single-agent therapy capable of rapid in vivo hematopoietic reconstitution until recovery of autologous hematopoiesis occurs. Using a murine model of h-ARS, we herein demonstrate that infusion of ex vivo expanded murine hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) into major histocompatibility complex mismatched recipient mice exposed to a lethal dose of ionizing radiation (IR) led to rapid myeloid recovery and improved survival. Survival benefit was significant in a dose-dependent manner even when infusion of the expanded cell therapy was delayed 3 days after lethal IR exposure. Most surviving mice (80%) demonstrated long-term in vivo persistence of donor T cells at low levels, and none had evidence of graft versus host disease. Furthermore, survival of donor-derived skin grafts was significantly prolonged in recipients rescued from h-ARS by infusion of the mismatched expanded cell product. These findings provide evidence that ex vivo expanded mismatched HSPCs can provide rapid, high-level hematopoietic reconstitution, mitigate IR-induced mortality, and convey donor-specific immune tolerance in a murine h-ARS model. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:566-575.
Keywords: Hematopoietic-acute radiation syndrome; Mismatched mouse progenitor cells; Notch expansion; Skin grafts; Tolerance induction.
© 2016 The Authors Stem Cells Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.