Characterization of glucagon-like peptide-1-(7-36)amide in the hypothalamus

Brain Res. 1989 Nov 20;502(2):325-31. doi: 10.1016/0006-8993(89)90628-8.


The distribution of glucagon-like peptide-1-(7-36)amide like immunoreactivity (GLP-1-(7-36)NH2 IR) in rat brain was determined. Highest concentrations were found in the hypothalamus. A combination of gel chromatography and anion exchange chromatography showed that the majority of hypothalamic immunoreactivity exactly corresponded in position to synthetic GLP-1-(7-36)NH2. Chromatographic analyses of rat ileum demonstrated a similar pattern, whereas in rat pancreas mainly a large proglucagon fragment and GLP-1 were indicated. Determination of the subcellular distribution by differential centrifugation of hypothalamic tissue revealed that most of the GLP-1-(7-36)NH2 IR was present in the synaptosome fraction. GLP-1-(7-36)NH2 was released from hypothalamic tissue slices in a calcium-dependent fashion by potassium-induced depolarization. Thus GLP-1-(7-36)NH2 appears to fulfil two criteria for a neurotransmitter. No change was found in its hypothalamic content in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats compared to normal controls but a decrease was seen in hyperinsulinemic hyperglycemic KKAy mice compared to KK mice.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental / metabolism*
  • Glucagon
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
  • Glucagon-Like Peptides
  • Hypothalamus / metabolism*
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Peptide Fragments*
  • Peptides / metabolism*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Inbred Strains


  • Peptide Fragments
  • Peptides
  • glucagon-like peptide 1 (7-36)amide
  • Glucagon-Like Peptides
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
  • Glucagon