Acute ischemic stroke results from blockage of a cerebral artery or impaired cerebral blood flow due to cervical or intracranial arterial stenosis. Ischemic stroke prevention seeks to minimize the risk of developing impaired cerebral perfusion by controlling vascular and cardiac disease risk factors. Similarly, ischemic stroke treatment aims to restore cerebral blood flow through recanalization of an occluded artery or dilation of a severely narrowed artery that supplies cerebral tissue. Stroke prevention and treatment are increasingly informed by imaging studies, and neurovascular and cerebral perfusion imaging has become essential in in guiding ischemic stroke prevention and treatment. Here we review the latest advances in ischemic stroke prevention and treatment with an emphasis on the neuroimaging principles emphasized in recent randomized trials. Future research directions that should be explored in ischemic stroke prevention and treatment are also discussed.
Keywords: Core infarction; imaging; ischemic stroke; mechanical thrombectomy; stroke prevention.