Preliminary assessment on the bioaccessibility of contaminants of emerging concern in raw and cooked seafood

Food Chem Toxicol. 2017 Jun;104:69-78. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2017.01.029. Epub 2017 Feb 13.


A preliminary assessment of the bioaccessibility of contaminants of emerging concern (CeCs), including perfluorinated compounds (PFCs; i.e. PFOS and PFUnA), brominated flame retardants (BFRs; i.e. BDE47, BDE100, α-HBCD) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs; i.e. venlafaxine, methylparaben and UV-filter OC) was performed in seafood species available in the European markets. Additionally, the effect of steaming on CeCs bioaccessibility was also investigated for the first time. Overall, steaming affected differentially contaminants' concentrations, for instance, decreasing PFOS levels in flounder, but increasing both BDE47 and BDE100. CeCs bioaccessibility varied according to seafood species and contaminant group, i.e. in general, lower bioaccessibility values were obtained for PBDEs (<70%, except for mackerel), while PFCs and PPCPs revealed higher bioaccessibility percentages (between 71 and 95%). The lowest bioaccessibility value was obtained for α-HBCD (mussel; 14%), whereas the highest percentage was observed in venlafaxine (mullet; 95%). Our preliminary study reports also, for the first time, the effects of steaming on CeCs bioaccessibility. In most cases, bioaccessibility was not affected by cooking, however, a decrease was observed in PBDEs and venlafaxine bioaccessibility in steamed mussels and mullet, respectively, thus lowering the potential health risks associated with seafood consumption.

Keywords: Bioaccessibility; Brominated flame retardants; Perfluorinated compounds; Pharmaceuticals and personal care products; Seafood; Steaming.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cooking
  • Digestion
  • Flame Retardants / analysis
  • Flame Retardants / metabolism
  • Flame Retardants / toxicity
  • Food Contamination / analysis*
  • Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers / analysis
  • Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers / metabolism
  • Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers / toxicity
  • Humans
  • Hydrocarbons, Brominated / analysis
  • Hydrocarbons, Brominated / metabolism
  • Hydrocarbons, Brominated / toxicity
  • Seafood / analysis*
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical / analysis
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical / metabolism*
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical / toxicity


  • Flame Retardants
  • Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers
  • Hydrocarbons, Brominated
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical