Dysbiosis a risk factor for celiac disease

Med Microbiol Immunol. 2017 Apr;206(2):83-91. doi: 10.1007/s00430-017-0496-z. Epub 2017 Feb 15.


Celiac disease remains one of the most challenging pathologies of the small intestine. It involves multiple pathogenic pathways and there are no disease-changing pharmacological agents available against it yet. The term microbiota refers to the community of microorganisms that inhabit a particular region of the body. Normal gut microbiota has a vital role in maintaining the intestinal homeostasis and promoting health. Celiac disease is associated with microbiota alteration, especially with an increase in the number of Gram-negative bacteria and a decrease in the number of Gram-positive bacteria. There is a strong relationship between intestinal dysbiosis and celiac disease, and recent studies are aimed at determining whether the celiac disease is a risk factor for dysbiosis or dysbiosis is for celiac disease. Therefore, the aim of this review was to assess the latest findings regarding the gut microbiota and its impact on the celiac disease, including therapeutic aspects.

Keywords: Celiac disease; Dysbiosis; Intestinal microbiota; Probiotics.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Celiac Disease / etiology*
  • Celiac Disease / metabolism
  • Celiac Disease / therapy
  • Diet, Gluten-Free
  • Dysbiosis*
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Genotype
  • HLA Antigens / genetics
  • HLA Antigens / immunology
  • Host-Pathogen Interactions
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Mucosal
  • Immunomodulation
  • Intestinal Mucosa / immunology
  • Intestinal Mucosa / metabolism
  • Intestinal Mucosa / microbiology
  • Intestinal Mucosa / pathology
  • Life Style
  • Probiotics / administration & dosage
  • Probiotics / therapeutic use
  • Risk Factors


  • HLA Antigens