Resolving host-pathogen interactions by dual RNA-seq

PLoS Pathog. 2017 Feb 16;13(2):e1006033. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006033. eCollection 2017 Feb.

Abstract

The transcriptome is a powerful proxy for the physiological state of a cell, healthy or diseased. As a result, transcriptome analysis has become a key tool in understanding the molecular changes that accompany bacterial infections of eukaryotic cells. Until recently, such transcriptomic studies have been technically limited to analyzing mRNA expression changes in either the bacterial pathogen or the infected eukaryotic host cell. However, the increasing sensitivity of high-throughput RNA sequencing now enables "dual RNA-seq" studies, simultaneously capturing all classes of coding and noncoding transcripts in both the pathogen and the host. In the five years since the concept of dual RNA-seq was introduced, the technique has been applied to a range of infection models. This has not only led to a better understanding of the physiological changes in pathogen and host during the course of an infection but has also revealed hidden molecular phenotypes of virulence-associated small noncoding RNAs that were not visible in standard infection assays. Here, we use the knowledge gained from these recent studies to suggest experimental and computational guidelines for the design of future dual RNA-seq studies. We conclude this review by discussing prospective applications of the technique.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing / methods*
  • Host-Pathogen Interactions / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Sequence Analysis, RNA / methods*

Grant support

LB was supported by a Research Fellowship from the Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung/Foundation. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.