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. 2017 Feb 10;18(2):376.
doi: 10.3390/ijms18020376.

Cocoa and Grape Seed Byproducts as a Source of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Proanthocyanidins

Free PMC article

Cocoa and Grape Seed Byproducts as a Source of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Proanthocyanidins

María De La Luz Cádiz-Gurrea et al. Int J Mol Sci. .
Free PMC article


Phenolic compounds, which are secondary plant metabolites, are considered an integral part of the human diet. Physiological properties of dietary polyphenols have come to the attention in recent years. Especially, proanthocyanidins (ranging from dimers to decamers) have demonstrated potential interactions with biological systems, such as antiviral, antibacterial, molluscicidal, enzyme-inhibiting, antioxidant, and radical-scavenging properties. Agroindustry produces a considerable amount of phenolic-rich sources, and the ability of polyphenolic structures to interacts with other molecules in living organisms confers their beneficial properties. Cocoa wastes and grape seeds and skin byproducts are a source of several phenolic compounds, particularly mono-, oligo-, and polymeric proanthocyanidins. The aim of this work is to compare the phenolic composition of Theobroma cacao and Vitis vinifera grape seed extracts by high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer and equipped with an electrospray ionization interface (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS) and its phenolic quantitation in order to evaluate the proanthocyanidin profile. The antioxidant capacity was measured by different methods, including electron transfer and hydrogen atom transfer-based mechanisms, and total phenolic and flavan-3-ol contents were carried out by Folin-Ciocalteu and Vanillin assays. In addition, to assess the anti-inflammatory capacity, the expression of MCP-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells was measured.

Keywords: HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS; Theobroma cacao; Vitis vinifera seed; anti-inflammatory activity; antioxidant activity; byproduct; polyphenols; proanthocyandins.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


Figure 1
Figure 1
Most common proanthocyanidins in cacao and grape seed extracts: procyanidin dimer (a); procyanidin trimer (b); and procyanidin dimer gallate (c).
Figure 2
Figure 2
Base peak chromatogram of grape seed extract.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Comparative quantification of main compounds found in cacao and grape seed extracts. Quantitation values are expressed as μg of analyte per gram of dry extract.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Effect of grape seed and cocoa extracts on production of relative MCP-1 mRNA levels in HUVEC. mRNA levels of MCP-1 were normalized using mRNA levels of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). * statistically significant (p-value < 0.05).

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