Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are two of the most common diseases of aging around the world. Given the frequency with which T2D and AD occur, the notion that people with T2D may be at increased risk for AD has large societal consequences, and understanding the mechanistic links between these diseases is imperative for the development of effective AD prevention and treatment strategies. Apart from being an accelerator of AD, T2D is associated with a progressive cognitive decline. Impaired insulin signaling, inflammation, the accumulation of advanced glycation end-products and oxidative stress all play an essential role in the pathogenesis of both AD and diabetic complications. Therefore, it is reasonable to postulate that these pathways are involved in the increased risk of dementia that occurs in the T2D population. The early diagnosis of cognitive impairment and the identification of the subset of patients at a higher risk of developing AD is a challenge for healthcare providers, and meeting it will permit us to implement a personalized medicine, which is an essential issue in diabetes care with significant therapeutic implications. The main gaps that should be filled to achieve this objective are examined.
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; Cognitive impairment; Dementia; Type 2 diabetes.