Purpose of review: Myopia is a global problem, being particularly prevalent in the urban areas of east and southeast Asia. In addition to the direct economic and social burdens, associated ocular complications may lead to substantial vision loss. With prevalence of myopia above 80% and high myopia over 20%, it is crucial to control myopia. The aim of this review to is provide an update on the interventions to slow the onset of myopia and retard its progression.
Recent findings: The epidemic of myopia is characterized by increasingly early onset, combined with high myopia progression rates. There are two pathways for myopia control: firstly to slow the onset of myopia and secondly to reduce or prevent progression. Increased time outdoors can reduce the onset of myopia. Atropine 0.01% dose offers an appropriate risk-benefit ratio, with no clinically significant visual side effects balanced against a significant 50% reduction in myopia progression. Orthokeratology contact lenses can slow axial length elongation, but infective keratitis is a risk. Peripheral defocussing lenses may both have a role in slowing myopic progression in a subset of children and further help our understanding of the physiologic control of ocular growth.
Summary: Myopia control can be achieved by slowing the onset of myopia, which now appears to be possible through increasing time outdoors and slowing the progression of myopia with interventions like atropine and orthokeratology.