Household Dengue Prevention Interventions, Expenditures, and Barriers to Aedes aegypti Control in Machala, Ecuador

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 Feb 16;14(2):196. doi: 10.3390/ijerph14020196.


The Aedes aegypti mosquito is an efficient vector for the transmission of Zika, chikungunya, and dengue viruses, causing major epidemics and a significant social and economic burden throughout the tropics and subtropics. The primary means of preventing these diseases is household-level mosquito control. However, relatively little is known about the economic burden of Ae. aegypti control in resource-limited communities. We surveyed residents from 40 households in a high-risk community at the urban periphery in the city of Machala, Ecuador, on dengue perceptions, vector control interventions, household expenditures, and factors influencing purchasing decisions. The results of this study show that households spend a monthly median of US$2.00, or 1.90% (range: 0.00%, 9.21%) of their family income on Ae. aegypti control interventions. Households reported employing, on average, five different mosquito control and dengue prevention interventions, including aerosols, liquid sprays, repellents, mosquito coils, and unimpregnated bed nets. We found that effectiveness and cost were the most important factors that influence people's decisions to purchase a mosquito control product. Our findings will inform the development and deployment of new Ae. aegypti control interventions by the public health and private sectors, and add to prior studies that have focused on the economic burden of dengue-like illness.

Keywords: Aedes aegypti; Ecuador; KAP; dengue fever; economic cost; mosquito control.

MeSH terms

  • Aedes / growth & development*
  • Animals
  • Dengue / epidemiology
  • Dengue / prevention & control*
  • Ecuador / epidemiology
  • Housing
  • Humans
  • Insect Vectors / virology*
  • Insecticides / economics*
  • Mosquito Control / economics*
  • Mosquito Control / methods*
  • Mosquito Nets / economics*
  • Socioeconomic Factors


  • Insecticides