Endophthalmitis Reduction with Intracameral Moxifloxacin Prophylaxis: Analysis of 600 000 Surgeries

Ophthalmology. 2017 Jun;124(6):768-775. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2017.01.026. Epub 2017 Feb 14.


Purpose: To compare the postoperative endophthalmitis rate before and after initiation of intracameral (IC) moxifloxacin prophylaxis for both phacoemulsification and sutureless, manual small-incision cataract surgery (M-SICS), as well as in patients with posterior capsular rupture (PCR).

Design: Retrospective, clinical registry.

Participants: All cataract surgeries (617 453) performed during the 29-month period from January 2014 to May 2016 at the 10 regional Aravind eye hospitals were included.

Methods: The electronic health record data for all study eyes were analyzed. Endophthalmitis rates before and after moxifloxaxin were statistically compared for all eyes and separately for both phacoemulsification and M-SICS, and for the eyes complicated by PCR.

Main outcome measures: The postoperative endophthalmitis rates before and after initiation of IC moxifloxacin prophylaxis.

Results: Overall, 302 815 eyes did not receive IC moxifloxacin and 314 638 eyes did, and there was a significant decline in the endophthalmitis rate, from 0.07% (214/302 815) to 0.02% (64/314 638) (P < 0.001), with moxifloxacin. For the 194 252 phacoemulsification eyes, the endophthalmitis rate was 0.07% (75/104 894) without IC moxifloxacin prophylaxis, compared with 0.01% (11/89 358) with moxifloxacin (P < 0.001). For the 414 657 M-SICS eyes, the endophthalmitis rate was 0.07% (135/192 149) without IC moxifloxacin prophylaxis, compared with 0.02% (52/222 508) with moxifloxacin (P < 0.001). Approximately half of the 8479 eyes that had PCR received IC moxifloxacin, and half did not. Without IC moxifloxacin, PCR increased the endophthalmitis rate nearly 7-fold to 0.48% (20/4186); IC moxifloxacin reduced the endophthalmitis rate with PCR to 0.21% (9/4293) (P = 0.034). No adverse events were due to IC moxifloxacin.

Conclusions: Routine IC moxifloxacin prophylaxis reduced the overall endophthalmitis rate by 3.5-fold (3-fold for M-SICS and nearly 6-fold for phacoemulsification). There was also a statistical benefit for eyes complicated by PCR, and IC antibiotic prophylaxis should be strongly considered for this high-risk population. These conclusions are strengthened by the high volume of cases analyzed at a single hospital network over a comparatively short time frame. Considering the association of hemorrhagic occlusive retinal vasculitis with vancomycin and the commercial unavailability of IC cefuroxime in many countries, moxifloxacin appears to be an effective option for surgeons electing IC antibiotic prophylaxis.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Anterior Chamber / drug effects*
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Antibiotic Prophylaxis*
  • Cataract Extraction / adverse effects
  • Electronic Health Records
  • Endophthalmitis / epidemiology
  • Endophthalmitis / microbiology
  • Endophthalmitis / prevention & control*
  • Eye Infections, Bacterial / epidemiology
  • Eye Infections, Bacterial / microbiology
  • Eye Infections, Bacterial / prevention & control*
  • Female
  • Fluoroquinolones / therapeutic use*
  • Humans
  • India / epidemiology
  • Lens Implantation, Intraocular
  • Male
  • Microsurgery
  • Middle Aged
  • Moxifloxacin
  • Ophthalmic Solutions
  • Phacoemulsification / adverse effects
  • Posterior Capsular Rupture, Ocular / complications
  • Postoperative Complications / prevention & control
  • Registries
  • Retrospective Studies


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Fluoroquinolones
  • Ophthalmic Solutions
  • Moxifloxacin