Antiprotozoal Constituents from Annona cherimola Miller, a Plant Used in Mexican Traditional Medicine for the Treatment of Diarrhea and Dysentery

Pharmacogn Mag. 2017 Jan-Mar;13(49):148-152. doi: 10.4103/0973-1296.197636.

Abstract

Background: Annona cherimola Miller (Annonaceae) is a medicinal plant frequently recommended in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea and dysentery.

Objective: This work was undertaken to obtain information that support the traditional use of A. cherimola, on pharmacological basis using in vitro and computational experiments.

Material and methods: Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanol extract of the leaves of A. cherimola afforded five phenolic compounds: caffeic acid, quercetin, kaempferol, nicotinflorin, and rutin.

Results: The in vitro antiprotozoal assay showed that kaempferol was the most potent antiamoebic and antigiardial compound with IC50 values of 7.9 μg/mL for Entamoeba histolytica and 8.7 μg/mL for Giardia lamblia. Computational molecular docking study showed that kaempferol interacted in a region different than metronidazole in the enzyme pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR).

Conclusion: Considering that PFOR is a target of metronidazole; kaempferol may be a lead compound for the development of novel antiprotozoal agent. Also, these findings give support to the use of A. cherimola in the traditional medicine from México for the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery.

Summary: Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanol extract of the leaves of Annona cherimola afforded five phenolic compounds: caffeic acid, quercetin, kaempferol, nicotinflorin and rutin. The in vitro antiprotozoal assay showed that kaempferol was the most potent antiamoebic and antigiardial compound with IC50 values of 7.9 μg/mL for Entamoeba histolytica and 8.7 μg/mL for Giardia lamblia. Computational molecular docking study showed that kaempferol interacted in a region different that metronidazole in the enzyme pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase. Abbreviations used: PFOR:Pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, G: lamblia: Giardia lamblia, E: histolytica: Entamoeba histolytica.

Keywords: Annona cherimola; Annonaceae; Antiprotozoal activity; Entamoeba histolytica; Giardia lamblia; Piruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase; kaempferol.