A study to evaluate the prevalence of hypogonadism in Indian males with Type-2 diabetes mellitus

Indian J Endocrinol Metab. Jan-Feb 2017;21(1):64-70. doi: 10.4103/2230-8210.196008.


Background: A high prevalence of hypogonadism in men with Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been reported worldwide.

Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of hypogonadism in Indian males with T2DM and assess the primary and secondary hypogonadism along with androgen deficiency.

Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study, 900 men with T2DM were evaluated using androgen deficiency in aging male questionnaire. They were screened for demographic characteristics, gonadal hormone levels, lipid profile, and glycosylated hemoglobin.

Results: The prevalence of hypogonadism in T2DM patients was found to be 20.7% (186 out of 900). Hypogonadism was of testicular origin (primary) in 48/186 (25.8%) patients, of pituitary or hypothalamic origin (secondary) in 14/186 (7.53%), and remaining 124/186 (66.67%) patients were found to have low testosterone with the inappropriate normal level of luteinizing hormone and Follicle-stimulating hormone. 451/900 (50.1%) patients were only symptomatic but had normal testosterone levels. Further 263 patients out 900 were asymptomatic, of which 51/900 (5.7%) patients had low levels of testosterone and 212/900 (23.5%) patients had normal testosterone level without symptoms. There were no deaths or other serious adverse events except mild pyrexia which was not related to the study.

Conclusion: Hypogonadism diagnosis, at times, might not be validated with the help of androgen deficiency questionnaire or symptoms only. Given the large number of patients of T2DM in India, the incidence of hypogonadism is more in diabetic patients as compared to the general population. Hence, implementation of screening programs in diabetic patients is necessary to understand and detect individuals with low serum total testosterone at any early stage and to supplement testosterone accordingly.

Keywords: Androgen; diabetes mellitus; hypogonadism; testosterone.