Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
. 2017 Feb 20;7(2):e243.
doi: 10.1038/nutd.2016.54.

Patterns of Dairy Food Intake, Body Composition and Markers of Metabolic Health in Ireland: Results From the National Adult Nutrition Survey

Affiliations
Free PMC article

Patterns of Dairy Food Intake, Body Composition and Markers of Metabolic Health in Ireland: Results From the National Adult Nutrition Survey

E L Feeney et al. Nutr Diabetes. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Background: Studies examining the association between dairy consumption and metabolic health have shown mixed results. This may be due, in part, to the use of different definitions of dairy, and to single types of dairy foods examined in isolation.

Objective: The objective of the study was to examine associations between dairy food intake and metabolic health, identify patterns of dairy food consumption and determine whether dairy dietary patterns are associated with outcomes of metabolic health, in a cross-sectional survey.

Design: A 4-day food diary was used to assess food and beverage consumption, including dairy (defined as milk, cheese, yogurt, cream and butter) in free-living, healthy Irish adults aged 18-90 years (n=1500). Fasting blood samples (n=897) were collected, and anthropometric measurements taken. Differences in metabolic health markers across patterns and tertiles of dairy consumption were tested via analysis of covariance. Patterns of dairy food consumption, of different fat contents, were identified using cluster analysis.

Results: Higher (total) dairy was associated with lower body mass index, %body fat, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio (P<0.001), and lower systolic (P=0.02) and diastolic (P<0.001) blood pressure. Similar trends were observed when milk and yogurt intakes were considered separately. Higher cheese consumption was associated with higher C-peptide (P<0.001). Dietary pattern analysis identified three patterns (clusters) of dairy consumption; 'Whole milk', 'Reduced fat milks and yogurt' and 'Butter and cream'. The 'Reduced fat milks and yogurt' cluster had the highest scores on a Healthy Eating Index, and lower-fat and saturated fat intakes, but greater triglyceride levels (P=0.028) and total cholesterol (P=0.015).

Conclusion: Overall, these results suggest that while milk and yogurt consumption is associated with a favourable body phenotype, the blood lipid profiles are less favourable when eaten as part of a low-fat high-carbohydrate dietary pattern. More research is needed to better understand this association.

Conclusion: Overall, these results suggest that although milk and yogurt consumption is associated with a favourable body phenotype, the blood lipid profiles are less favourable when eaten as part of a low-fat high-carbohydrate dietary pattern. More research is needed to better understand this association.

Conflict of interest statement

ELF and APN have previously received speaking honoraria from the National Dairy Council. The remaining authors declare no conflict of interest.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 2 articles

References

    1. Griffin BA. Dairy, dairy, quite contrary: further evidence to support a role for calcium in counteracting the cholesterol-raising effect of SFA in dairy foods. Br J Nutr 2011; 105: 1713–1714. - PubMed
    1. Feeney EL, Nugent AP, Mc Nulty B, Walton J, Flynn A, Gibney ER. An overview of the contribution of dairy and cheese intakes to nutrient intakes in the Irish diet: results from the National Adult Nutrition Survey. Br J Nutr 2016; 115: 709–717. - PubMed
    1. Bates B, Lennox A, Prentice A, Bates C, Page P, Nicholson S et al. National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Results from Years 1-4 (Combined) of the Rolling Programme (2008/2009–2011/12). Public Health England: London, 2014.
    1. Huth PJ, Fulgoni VL, Keast DR, Park K, Auestad N. Major food sources of calories, added sugars, and saturated fat and their contribution to essential nutrient intakes in the U.S. diet: data from the national health and nutrition examination survey (2003–2006). Nutr J 2013; 12: 116. - PMC - PubMed
    1. Haug A, Hostmark AT, Harstad OM. Bovine milk in human nutrition–a review. Lipids Health Dis 2007; 6: 1–16. - PMC - PubMed

Publication types

MeSH terms

LinkOut - more resources

Feedback