Evaluating the Impact of Pharmacies on Pandemic Influenza Vaccine Administration

Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2017 Oct;11(5):587-593. doi: 10.1017/dmp.2017.1. Epub 2017 Feb 21.


Objectives: The objective of this study was to quantify the potential retail pharmacy vaccine administration capacity and its possible impact on pandemic influenza vaccine uptake.

Methods: We developed a discrete event simulation model by use of ExtendSim software (Imagine That Inc, San Jose, CA) to forecast the potential effect of retail pharmacy vaccine administration on total weekly vaccine administration and the time needed to reach 80% vaccination coverage with a single dose of vaccine per person.

Results: Results showed that weekly national vaccine administration capacity increased to 25 million doses per week when retail pharmacist vaccination capacity was included in the model. In addition, the time to achieve 80% vaccination coverage nationally was reduced by 7 weeks, assuming high public demand for vaccination. The results for individual states varied considerably, but in 48 states the inclusion of pharmacies improved time to 80% coverage.

Conclusions: Pharmacists can increase the numbers of pandemic influenza vaccine doses administered and reduce the time to achieve 80% single-dose coverage. These results support efforts to ensure pharmacist vaccinators are integrated into pandemic vaccine response planning. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:587-593).

Keywords: influenza; pandemic vaccine administration; pharmacies.

MeSH terms

  • Computer Simulation*
  • Humans
  • Immunization Programs / methods
  • Immunization Programs / standards*
  • Influenza Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Influenza, Human / epidemiology
  • Influenza, Human / prevention & control
  • Pandemics / prevention & control
  • Pharmacies / statistics & numerical data*
  • Pharmacies / supply & distribution
  • Vaccination / statistics & numerical data*


  • Influenza Vaccines