Renal damage following Alloxan-induced diabetes is associated with generation of reactive oxygen species, alterations of p53, TGF-β1, and extracellular matrix metalloproteinases in rats

Cell Biol Int. 2017 May;41(5):525-533. doi: 10.1002/cbin.10752. Epub 2017 Mar 19.


Renal damage is a common problem in diabetes. Alloxan, a potent hyperglycemic and diabetogenic molecule, can induce diabetes through oxidative stress-related mechanisms. Here, we hypothesize that "Alloxan-induced renal damage is associated with alterations of p53, TGF-β1, and extracellular matrix metalloproteinases." To test our hypothesis, we established an animal model (male abino rats) and induced diabetes by intraperitoneal injection of Alloxan monohydrate. Rats with fasting blood glucose level ≥ 200 mg/dL were considered diabetic and were sacrificed after 14, 28, and 42 day intervals. Tissue levels of malondialdehyde and glutathione levels (markers of oxidative stress), and serum MMP-1 were measured. The expression patterns of p53, TGF-β1were evaluated using Western blot and immunohistochemical methods. TIMP-1 expression pattern was determined using RT-PCR and immunohistochemical methods. Alloxan treatment induced histological features of renal damage (inflammation and fibrosis) and was associated with deterioration of the renal functions (elevated blood urea nitrogen and creatinin levels), hyperglycemia, and oxidative stresss (increased malondialdehyde and decreased glutathione levels). There was over-expression of the TGF-β1 protein (profibrogenic protein), p53 (proapoptotic protein), and alterations of extracellular matrix proteins (low level of serum MMP-1 and over-expression of TIMP-1). Alterations of TGF-β, p53, and extracellular matrix metalloproteinases contribute to the pathogenesis of Alloxan-induced renal damage.

Keywords: Alloxan; MMP-1; fibrosis; glomerulosclerosis; intersititial; kidney.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blood Urea Nitrogen
  • Blotting, Western
  • Creatinine / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental / enzymology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental / pathology*
  • Extracellular Matrix / metabolism*
  • Glutathione / metabolism
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Kidney / pathology*
  • Lipid Peroxides / metabolism
  • Male
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 / metabolism*
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism*
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 / blood
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 / genetics
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 / metabolism*
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism*
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta1 / metabolism*


  • Lipid Peroxides
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta1
  • Creatinine
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 1
  • Glutathione