Global Transcriptional Response of Human Liver Cells to Ethanol Stress of Different Strength Reveals Hormetic Behavior

Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2017 May;41(5):883-894. doi: 10.1111/acer.13361. Epub 2017 Mar 27.


Background: The liver is the major site for alcohol metabolism in the body and therefore the primary target organ for ethanol (EtOH)-induced toxicity. In this study, we investigated the in vitro response of human liver cells to different EtOH concentrations in a perfused bioartificial liver device that mimics the complex architecture of the natural organ.

Methods: Primary human liver cells were cultured in the bioartificial liver device and treated for 24 hours with medium containing 150 mM (low), 300 mM (medium), or 600 mM (high) EtOH, while a control culture was kept untreated. Gene expression patterns for each EtOH concentration were monitored using Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST Gene chips. Scaled expression profiles of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were clustered using Fuzzy c-means algorithm. In addition, functional classification methods, KEGG pathway mapping and also a machine learning approach (Random Forest) were utilized.

Results: A number of 966 (150 mM EtOH), 1,334 (300 mM EtOH), or 4,132 (600 mM EtOH) genes were found to be differentially expressed. Dose-response relationships of the identified clusters of co-expressed genes showed a monotonic, threshold, or nonmonotonic (hormetic) behavior. Functional classification of DEGs revealed that low or medium EtOH concentrations operate adaptation processes, while alterations observed for the high EtOH concentration reflect the response to cellular damage. The genes displaying a hormetic response were functionally characterized by overrepresented "cellular ketone metabolism" and "carboxylic acid metabolism." Altered expression of the genes BAHD1 and H3F3B was identified as sufficient to classify the samples according to the applied EtOH doses.

Conclusions: Different pathways of metabolic and epigenetic regulation are affected by EtOH exposition and partly undergo hormetic regulation in the bioartificial liver device. Gene expression changes observed at high EtOH concentrations reflect in some aspects the situation of alcoholic hepatitis in humans.

Keywords: Bioreactor; Ethanol Stress; Hormesis; Human Hepatocytes; Transcriptome.

MeSH terms

  • Cells, Cultured
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Ethanol / toxicity*
  • Hepatocytes / drug effects*
  • Hepatocytes / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects*
  • Oxidative Stress / physiology
  • Transcription, Genetic / drug effects*
  • Transcription, Genetic / physiology


  • Ethanol