Stress in Gastrointestinal Tract and Stable Gastric Pentadecapeptide BPC 157. Finally, do we have a Solution?

Curr Pharm Des. 2017;23(27):4012-4028. doi: 10.2174/1381612823666170220163219.


Selye's syndrome produced by diverse nocuous agents and "response to damage as such" means Selye's stress triad in stress coping response to reestablish homeostasis. Logically, from the gastrointestinal tract viewpoint, such organoprotective/healing response implies the angiogenic growth factors that commonly signify the healing. Thereby, the gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157-organoprotection (huge range of beneficial effects) signifies the Selye's stress concept/stress coping response implemented in and from gastrointestinal tract, and BPC 157 as an integrative mediator that integrates the adaptive bodily response to stress. In clinical trials without side effects, LD1 not achieved, BPC 157 healing in gastrointestinal tract, and particularly the healing of the extragastrointestinal tissues (i.e., skin/tendon/ligament/muscle/bone; nerve; cornea/ brain) were referred throughout its integrative capabilities (i.e., ulcerative colitis/multiple sclerosis model equally counteracted), native in gastrointestinal tract, stability in human gastric juice (and thereby, strong efficacy and applicability), its relevance for dopamine-system function (and thereby, counteracting effects of dopamine-system dysfunction and overfunction, centrally and peripherally (mucosa maintenance); interaction with serotonin- and GABA-system)), afforded cytoprotection/adaptive cytoprotection/organoprotection (and thereby, beneficial effects on gastric and whole intestinal tract lesions and adaptation, wounds and fistulas healing, blood vessels, somatosensory neurons, NSAIDs-side effects (including also pancreas, liver, brain lesions, and blood disturbances, prolonged bleeding, thrombocytopenia, thrombosis)). Further, we combine such gut-brain axis and the NO-system where BPC 157 counteracts complications of either L-NAME application (i.e., various lesions aggravation, hypertension) or Larginine application (i.e., hypotension, prolonged bleeding, thrombocytopenia). Also, BPC 157 particularly affects genes functions (i.e., Fos, c-Jun, Egr-1), all together suggestive for an indicative generalization. Thus, we could suggest gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 and BPC 157 induced-organoprotection as integrative mediator that integrates the adaptive bodily response to stress, and thereby practically applied in further therapy and in effective realization of Selye's stress response.

Keywords: Gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157; gastrointestinal tract; integrative mediator; organoprotection; stress response.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Physiological / physiology
  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / administration & dosage
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / adverse effects
  • Dopamine / metabolism
  • Gastrointestinal Tract / physiopathology*
  • General Adaptation Syndrome / physiopathology*
  • Humans
  • NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester / pharmacology
  • Peptide Fragments / metabolism
  • Proteins / metabolism
  • Stress, Physiological / physiology*


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Peptide Fragments
  • Proteins
  • BPC 157
  • NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester
  • Dopamine