Salusin-β is a bioactive peptide involved in vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, vascular fibrosis and hypertension. The present study was designed to determine the effects of silencing salusin-β on hypertension and cardiovascular remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Thirteen-week-old male SHR and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) were subjected to intravenous injection of PBS, adenoviral vectors encoding salusin-β shRNA (Ad-Sal-shRNA) or a scramble shRNA. Salusin-β levels in plasma, myocardium and mesenteric artery were increased in SHR. Silencing salusin-β had no significant effect on blood pressure in WKY, but reduced blood pressure in SHR. It reduced the ratio of left ventricle weight to body weight, cross-sectional areas of cardiocytes and perivascular fibrosis, and decreased the media thickness and the media/lumen ratio of arteries in SHR. Silencing salusin-β almost normalized plasma norepinephrine and angiotensin II levels in SHR. It prevented the upregulation of angiotensin II and AT1 receptors, and reduced the NAD(P)H oxidase activity and superoxide anion levels in myocardium and mesenteric artery of SHR. Knockdown of salusin-β attenuated cell proliferation and fibrosis in vascular smooth muscle cells from SHR. These results indicate that silencing salusin-β attenuates hypertension and cardiovascular remodeling in SHR.