Aims: Idarucizumab, a humanized monoclonal anti-dabigatran antibody fragment, is effective in emergency reversal of dabigatran anticoagulation. Pre-existing and treatment-emergent anti-idarucizumab antibodies (antidrug antibodies; ADA) may affect the safety and efficacy of idarucizumab. This analysis characterized the pre-existing and treatment-emergent ADA and assessed their impact on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) of idarucizumab.
Methods: Data were pooled from three Phase I, randomized, double-blind idarucizumab studies in healthy Caucasian subjects; elderly, renally impaired subjects; and healthy Japanese subjects. In plasma sampled before and after idarucizumab dosing, ADA were detected and titrated using a validated electrochemiluminescence method. ADA epitope specificities were examined using idarucizumab and two structurally related molecules. Idarucizumab PK/PD data were compared for subjects with and without pre-existing ADA.
Results: Pre-existing ADA were found in 33 out of 283 individuals (11.7%), seven of whom had intermittent ADA. Titres of pre-existing and treatment-emergent ADA were low, estimated equivalent to <0.3% of circulating idarucizumab after a 5 g dose. Pre-existing ADA had no impact on dose-normalized idarucizumab maximum plasma levels and exposure and, although data were limited, no impact on the reversal of dabigatran-induced anticoagulation by idarucizumab. Treatment-emergent ADA were detected in 20 individuals (19 out of 224 treated [8.5%]; 1 out of 59 received placebo [1.7%]) and were transient in ten. The majority had specificity primarily toward the C-terminus of idarucizumab. There were no adverse events indicative of immunogenic reactions.
Conclusion: Pre-existing and treatment-emergent ADA were present at extremely low levels relative to the idarucizumab dosage under evaluation. The PK/PD of idarucizumab appeared to be unaffected by the presence of pre-existing ADA.
Keywords: antibodies; anticoagulants; coagulation; immunology; pharmacokinetics.
© 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Pharmacological Society.