The nucleotide sequence for the structural gene entC1 encoding staphylococcal enterotoxin C1 was determined. The gene contained 801 bp and coded for a protein of 266 amino acids. Of these, 27 comprised the signal peptide. Cleavage of the signal peptide resulted in a mature protein with 239 amino acids and a calculated molecular weight of 27,496. The nucleotide sequence of entC1 shared considerable homology (74% and 59%, respectively) with genes encoding enterotoxin B and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A. A similar degree of amino acid homology was observed after alignment of the respective proteins. Thus, certain regions of these three toxin molecules possess structural similarities that may be responsible for shared biological properties.