Reported Dietary Intake, Disparity between the Reported Consumption and the Level Needed for Adequacy and Food Sources of Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Vitamin D in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study

Nutrients. 2017 Feb 21;9(2):168. doi: 10.3390/nu9020168.


Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and vitamin D have important biological roles in the body, especially in bone metabolism. We aimed to study the reported intake, the disparity between the reported consumption and the level needed for adequacy and food sources of these four nutrients in the Spanish population. We assessed the reported intake for both, general population and plausible reporters. Results were extracted from the ANIBES survey, n = 2009. Three-day dietary reported intake data were obtained and misreporting was assessed according to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Mean ± SEM (range) total reported consumption of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and vitamin D for the whole population were 698 ± 7 mg/day (71-2551 mg/day), 1176 ± 8 mg/day, (331-4429 mg/day), 222 ± 2 mg/day (73-782 mg/day), and 4.4 ± 0.1 µg/day (0.0-74.2 µg/day), respectively. In the whole group, 76% and 66%; 79% and 72%; and 94% and 93% of the population had reported intakes below 80% of the national and European recommended daily intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D, respectively; these percentages were over 40% when the plausible reporters were analysed separately. The main food sources were milk and dairy products for calcium and phosphorus, cereals and grains for magnesium and fish for vitamin D. In conclusion, there is an important percentage of the Spanish ANIBES population not meeting the recommended intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D.

Keywords: ANIBES study; calcium; food intake; magnesium; misreporting; nutrients; phosphorus; vitamin D.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Calcium / administration & dosage*
  • Calcium, Dietary / administration & dosage
  • Child
  • Diet Records
  • Diet Surveys
  • Diet*
  • Feeding Behavior*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Magnesium / administration & dosage*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nutritional Requirements*
  • Phosphorus / administration & dosage*
  • Phosphorus, Dietary / administration & dosage
  • Spain
  • Vitamin D / administration & dosage*
  • Young Adult


  • Calcium, Dietary
  • Phosphorus, Dietary
  • Vitamin D
  • Phosphorus
  • Magnesium
  • Calcium