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Changes in Volatile and Non-Volatile Flavor Chemicals of "Valencia" Orange Juice Over the Harvest Seasons

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Changes in Volatile and Non-Volatile Flavor Chemicals of "Valencia" Orange Juice Over the Harvest Seasons

Jinhe Bai et al. Foods.

Abstract

Florida "Valencia" oranges have a wide harvest window, covering four months after first reaching the commercial maturity. However, the influence of harvest time on juice flavor chemicals is not well documented, with the exception of sugars and acids. Therefore, we investigated the major flavor chemicals, volatile (aroma), non-volatile (taste) and mouth feel attributes, in the two harvest seasons (March to June in 2007 and February to May in 2012). Bitter limonoid compounds, limonin and nomilin, decreased gradually. Out of a total of 94 volatiles, 32 increased, 47 peaked mid to late season, and 15 decreased. Juice insoluble solids and pectin content increased over the season; however, pectin methylesterase activity remained unchanged. Fruit harvested in the earlier months had lower flavor quality. Juice from later harvests had a higher sugar/acid ratio with less bitterness, while, many important aroma compounds occurred at the highest concentrations in the middle to late season, but occurred at lower concentrations at the end of the season. The results provide information to the orange juice processing industry for selection of optimal harvest time and for setting of precise blending strategy.

Keywords: Citrus sinensis; aroma; bitterness; flavor; limonoid; maturity; orange juice; volatile.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Changes in volatile abundance and frequency of detection in “Valencia” orange juice samples harvested from February to May 2012 (n = 4). a order in abundance listed by average peak size (total ion current) from high to low in total of 94 peaks; b groups: A-increase; B-decrease; C-peak with sub-groups in numbers; c the same letter within the same row (compound) represents no significant different at 0.05 level; d unknown compound with the retention indices (ri + a 4 digital number); e Average abundance (x 107 total ion current) and frequency of detection (%).
Figure 2
Figure 2
Cluster analysis of aroma quality of “Valencia” orange juice harvested from February to May 2012 based on 94 volatile compounds. “2”–“5” represent months (2 = February, 3 = March, 4 = April and 5 = May) and A–D represent replicates.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Principle component analysis (PCA) of important attributes of aroma, taste, and mouth feel components of Valencia’ orange juice harvested over the 2007 and 2012 seasons. (a) and (b) PCA scores plot and loading plot in 2007, respectively. (c) and (d) PCA scores plot and loading plot in 2012, respectively. Component numbers for volatile, non-volatile and mouth feel attributes were 13, 5 and 1, respectively in 2007 and 23, 5, and 3, respectively in 2012.
Figure 4
Figure 4
A schematic diagram to demonstrate the change patterns of different non-volatile (boxed) and volatile (non-boxed) flavor chemical compounds along with harvest time (from February/March to May/June) in “Valencia” orange juice. The width of the band indicates the relative abundance of each chemical class/attribute except for SSC/TA ratio which represents the optimal quality.

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