The impact of ABO mismatch has been studied on various hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) outcomes, including neutrophil and platelet engraftment, pure red cell aplasia, acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), nonrelapse mortality (NRM), and overall survival (OS). Yet conflicting results have been reported. However, the impact of ABO mismatch on transplant outcomes with various graft types has not been carefully investigated. We analyzed the impact of various graft sources and type of ABO mismatch on transplant outcomes for 1502 patients who underwent HCT at the University of Minnesota between 2000 and 2014: 312 receiving marrow (BM), 475 filgrastim-mobilized blood (peripheral blood stem cell [PBSC]), and 715 umbilical cord blood (UCB) grafts. Neutrophil engraftment by day 28 was marginally less frequent in the bidirectional ABO mismatched transplants receiving UCB, whereas ABO matching had no influence on engraftment in the BM or PBSC cohorts. ABO mismatch led to no significant differences in platelet engraftment irrespective of stem cell source. We observed a modest but not significantly lower incidence of grades II/IV acute GVHD in the bidirectional ABO mismatched transplants in the UCB and the PBSC cohorts but not in the BM group. We found a higher incidence of chronic GVHD in the PBSC group, but it was not significantly lower in the minor ABO mismatched transplants. The incidence of chronic GVHD was similar in the major ABO mismatched transplants receiving BM. We found no significant difference in the OS and NRM between ABO matched and ABO mismatched transplants within each of the 3 graft source groups. Multivariable analysis adjusting for other relevant factors confirmed that ABO match status did not significantly influence the outcomes of either engraftment, acute or chronic GVHD or NRM. We conclude that ABO mismatch does not influence the outcomes of allogeneic HCT, regardless of stem cell source.
Keywords: ABO incompatibility; ABO mismatched HCT; Graft source; Transplant.
Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.