Both microbial infection and sterile inflammation augment bone marrow (BM) neutrophil production, but whether the induced accelerated granulopoiesis is mediated by a common pathway and the nature of such a pathway are poorly defined. We recently established that BM myeloid cell-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) externally regulate myeloid progenitor proliferation and differentiation in bacteria-elicited emergency granulopoiesis. In this article, we show that BM ROS levels are also elevated during sterile inflammation. Similar to in microbial infection, ROS were mainly generated by the phagocytic NADPH oxidase in Gr1+ myeloid cells. The myeloid cells and their ROS were uniformly distributed in the BM when visualized by multiphoton intravital microscopy, and ROS production was both required and sufficient for sterile inflammation-elicited reactive granulopoiesis. Elevated granulopoiesis was mediated by ROS-induced phosphatase and tensin homolog oxidation and deactivation, leading to upregulated PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 signaling and increased progenitor cell proliferation. Collectively, these results demonstrate that, although infection-induced emergency granulopoiesis and sterile inflammation-elicited reactive granulopoiesis are triggered by different stimuli and are mediated by distinct upstream signals, the pathways converge to NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production by BM myeloid cells. Thus, BM Gr1+ myeloid cells represent a key hematopoietic niche that supports accelerated granulopoiesis in infective and sterile inflammation. This niche may be an excellent target in various immune-mediated pathologies or immune reconstitution after BM transplantation.
Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.