Optimal Control of Inspired Perfluorocarbon Temperature for Ultrafast Hypothermia Induction by Total Liquid Ventilation in an Adult Patient Model

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2017 Dec;64(12):2760-2770. doi: 10.1109/TBME.2017.2671741. Epub 2017 Feb 20.


Goal: Recent preclinical studies have shown that therapeutic hypothermia induced in less than 30 min by total liquid ventilation (TLV) strongly improves the survival rate after cardiac arrest. When the lung is ventilated with a breathable perfluorocarbon liquid, the inspired perfluorocarbon allows us to control efficiently the cooling process of the organs. While TLV can rapidly cool animals, the cooling speed in humans remains unknown. The objective is to predict the efficiency and safety of ultrafast cooling by TLV in adult humans.

Methods: It is based on a previously published thermal model of ovines in TLV and the design of a direct optimal controller to compute the inspired perfluorocarbon temperature profile. The experimental results in an adult sheep are presented. The thermal model of sheep is subsequently projected to a human model to simulate the optimal hypothermia induction and its sensitivity to physiological parameter uncertainties.

Results: The results in the sheep showed that the computed inspired perfluorocarbon temperature command can avoid arterial temperature undershoot. The projection to humans revealed that mild hypothermia should be ultrafast (reached in fewer than 3 min (-72 °C/h) for the brain and 20 min (-10 °C/h) for the entire body).

Conclusion: The projection to human model allows concluding that therapeutic hypothermia induction by TLV can be ultrafast and safe.

Significance: This study is the first to simulate ultrafast cooling by TLV in a human model and is a strong motivation to translate TLV to humans to improve the quality of life of postcardiac arrest patients.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Animals
  • Brain / physiology
  • Computer Simulation
  • Fluorocarbons* / administration & dosage
  • Fluorocarbons* / therapeutic use
  • Heart Arrest / therapy
  • Humans
  • Hypothermia, Induced / methods*
  • Liquid Ventilation / methods*
  • Lung / physiology
  • Models, Biological
  • Sheep
  • Temperature


  • Fluorocarbons

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