Aim: To compare the associations of individual sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors with adverse renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched for studies published up to May 24, 2016, without language or date restrictions. Randomized trials that reported at least 1 renal-related adverse outcome in patients with T2DM treated with SGLT2 inhibitors were included. Pairwise and network meta-analyses were carried out to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and a cumulative meta-analysis was performed to assess the robustness of evidence.
Results: In total, we extracted 1334 composite renal events among 39 741 patients from 58 trials, and 511 acute renal impairment/failure events among 36 716 patients from 53 trials. Dapagliflozin was significantly associated with a greater risk of composite renal events than placebo (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.26-2.13). Empagliflozin seemed to confer a lower risk than placebo (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.54-0.72), canagliflozin (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.29-0.82) and dapagliflozin (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.28-0.51). With regard to acute renal impairment/failure, only empagliflozin was significantly associated with a lower risk than placebo (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.60-0.86). The cumulative meta-analysis indicated the robustness of our significant findings.
Conclusions: The present meta-analysis indicated that dapagliflozin may increase the risk of adverse renal events, while empagliflozin may have a protective effect among patients with T2DM. Further data from large well-conducted randomized controlled trials and a real-world setting are warranted.
Keywords: SGLT2 inhibitor; meta-analysis; renal outcomes; type 2 diabetes.
© 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.