Comparable effects of breakfast meals varying in protein source on appetite and subsequent energy intake in healthy males

Eur J Nutr. 2018 Apr;57(3):1097-1108. doi: 10.1007/s00394-017-1392-4. Epub 2017 Feb 27.


Purpose: The satiating effect of animal vs plant proteins remains unknown. The present study examined the effects of breakfasts containing animal proteins [milk (AP)], a blend of plant proteins [oat, pea and potato (VP)] or 50:50 mixture of the two (MP) compared with a carbohydrate-rich meal (CHO) on appetite, energy intake (EI) and metabolic measures.

Methods: A total of 28 males [mean age 27.4 (±SD 4.2) years, BMI 23.4 (±2.1) kg/m2] consumed three isoenergetic (1674 kJ) rice puddings matched for energy density and macronutrient content as breakfast (25% E from protein) in a single-blind, randomised, cross over design. Appetite ratings and blood samples were collected and assessed at baseline and every 30 and 60 min, respectively, until an ad libitum test meal was served 3.5 h later. Free-living appetite was recorded hourly and EI in weighed food records for the remainder of the day.

Results: No differences in subjective appetite ratings were observed after consumption of the AP, VP and MP. Furthermore, there were no differences between the AP, VP, MP and CHO breakfasts in ad libitum EI and self-reported EI during the remainder of the day. Although insulin metabolism was not affected, CHO induced a higher glucose response (P = 0.001) and total amino acids concentration was in the order of AP = MP > VP > CHO breakfast (P = 0.001).

Conclusion: Manipulating the protein source of foods consumed as breakfast, elicited comparable effects on appetite and EI at both laboratory and free-living environment in healthy men.

Keywords: Amino acids; Appetite; Energy intake; Insulin; Milk proteins; Pea protein.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Amino Acids / blood
  • Appetite Regulation*
  • Avena / chemistry
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Breakfast*
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Diet Records
  • Diet, Carbohydrate Loading / adverse effects
  • Diet, Healthy*
  • Energy Intake*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Milk Proteins / administration & dosage*
  • Peas / chemistry
  • Plant Proteins, Dietary / administration & dosage*
  • Postprandial Period
  • Satiety Response*
  • Single-Blind Method
  • Solanum tuberosum / chemistry
  • Sweden
  • Young Adult


  • Amino Acids
  • Blood Glucose
  • Milk Proteins
  • Plant Proteins, Dietary