Co-infection with coxsackievirus A5 and norovirus GII.4 could have been the trigger of the first episode of severe acute encephalopathy in a six-year-old child with the intermittent form of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD)

Arch Virol. 2017 Jun;162(6):1757-1763. doi: 10.1007/s00705-017-3299-z. Epub 2017 Feb 27.


In this case study, a co-infection with coxsackievirus A5 (family Picornaviridae) and norovirus GII.4 (family Caliciviridae) was detected by RT-PCR in a faecal sample from a six-year-old girl with symptoms of severe acute encephalopathy subsequently diagnosed as the intermittent form of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). The two co-infecting viruses, which had been detected previously, appeared to have triggered the underlying metabolic disorder. Here, we describe the genotyping of the viruses, as well as the chronological course, laboratory test results, and clinical presentation of this case, which included recurrent vomiting without diarrhoea, metabolic acidosis, unconsciousness, seizure and circulatory collapse, but with a positive final outcome.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Brain Diseases / diagnosis
  • Brain Diseases / virology*
  • Child
  • Coinfection
  • Enterovirus A, Human / genetics
  • Enterovirus A, Human / isolation & purification*
  • Enterovirus A, Human / physiology
  • Feces / virology
  • Female
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Maple Syrup Urine Disease / diagnosis
  • Maple Syrup Urine Disease / virology*
  • Norovirus / genetics
  • Norovirus / isolation & purification*
  • Norovirus / physiology