Protein glycosylation can have an enormous variety of biological consequences, reflecting the molecular diversity encoded in glycan structures. This same structural diversity has imposed major challenges on the development of methods to study the intact glycoproteome. We recently introduced a method termed isotope-targeted glycoproteomics (IsoTaG), which utilizes isotope recoding to characterize azidosugar-labeled glycopeptides bearing fully intact glycans. Here, we describe the broad application of the method to analyze glycoproteomes from a collection of tissue-diverse cell lines. The effort was enabled by a new high-fidelity pattern-searching and glycopeptide validation algorithm termed IsoStamp v2.0, as well as by novel stable isotope probes. Application of the IsoTaG platform to 15 cell lines metabolically labeled with Ac4GalNAz or Ac4ManNAz revealed 1375 N- and 2159 O-glycopeptides, variously modified with 74 discrete glycan structures. Glycopeptide-bound glycans observed by IsoTaG were found to be comparable to released N-glycans identified by permethylation analysis. IsoTaG is therefore positioned to enhance structural understanding of the glycoproteome.
Keywords: IsoStamp; LC−MS/MS; chemical biology; chemical enrichment; glycoconjugate; glycomics; glycoprotein; glycoproteomics; metabolic labeling.