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Association of Type 1 Diabetes vs Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosed During Childhood and Adolescence With Complications During Teenage Years and Young Adulthood

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Association of Type 1 Diabetes vs Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosed During Childhood and Adolescence With Complications During Teenage Years and Young Adulthood

Dana Dabelea et al. JAMA.

Abstract

Importance: The burden and determinants of complications and comorbidities in contemporary youth-onset diabetes are unknown.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of and risk factors for complications related to type 1 diabetes vs type 2 diabetes among teenagers and young adults who had been diagnosed with diabetes during childhood and adolescence.

Design, setting, and participants: Observational study from 2002 to 2015 in 5 US locations, including 2018 participants with type 1 and type 2 diabetes diagnosed at younger than 20 years, with single outcome measures between 2011 and 2015.

Exposures: Type 1 and type 2 diabetes and established risk factors (hemoglobin A1c level, body mass index, waist-height ratio, and mean arterial blood pressure).

Main outcomes and measures: Diabetic kidney disease, retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy, cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, arterial stiffness, and hypertension.

Results: Of 2018 participants, 1746 had type 1 diabetes (mean age, 17.9 years [SD, 4.1]; 1327 non-Hispanic white [76.0%]; 867 female patients [49.7%]), and 272 had type 2 (mean age, 22.1 years [SD, 3.5]; 72 non-Hispanic white [26.5%]; 181 female patients [66.5%]). Mean diabetes duration was 7.9 years (both groups). Patients with type 2 diabetes vs those with type 1 had higher age-adjusted prevalence of diabetic kidney disease (19.9% vs 5.8%; absolute difference [AD], 14.0%; 95% CI, 9.1%-19.9%; P < .001), retinopathy (9.1% vs 5.6%; AD, 3.5%; 95% CI, 0.4%-7.7%; P = .02), peripheral neuropathy (17.7% vs 8.5%; AD, 9.2%; 95% CI, 4.8%-14.4%; P < .001), arterial stiffness (47.4% vs 11.6%; AD, 35.9%; 95% CI, 29%-42.9%; P < .001), and hypertension (21.6% vs 10.1%; AD, 11.5%; 95% CI, 6.8%-16.9%; P < .001), but not cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (15.7% vs 14.4%; AD, 1.2%; 95% CI, -3.1% to 6.5; P = .62). After adjustment for established risk factors measured over time, participants with type 2 diabetes vs those with type 1 had significantly higher odds of diabetic kidney disease (odds ratio [OR], 2.58; 95% CI, 1.39-4.81; P=.003), retinopathy (OR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.11-4.50; P = .02), and peripheral neuropathy (OR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.43-4.43; P = .001), but no significant difference in the odds of arterial stiffness (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.63-1.84; P = .80) and hypertension (OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.50-1.45; P = .55).

Conclusions and relevance: Among teenagers and young adults who had been diagnosed with diabetes during childhood or adolescence, the prevalence of complications and comorbidities was higher among those with type 2 diabetes compared with type 1, but frequent in both groups. These findings support early monitoring of youth with diabetes for development of complications.

Conflict of interest statement

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Marcovina reports consulting for Denka Seiken and MedTest Dx. No other disclosures were reported.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1. Design of the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Cohort Study
Risk factors measured at baseline, follow-up, and outcome visits included glycemia (measured as hemoglobin A1c), obesity (body mass index and waist-height ratio), and blood pressure levels. Outcomes measured at the outcome visits included diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, hypertension, and arterial stiffness.
Figure 2
Figure 2. Flow of Participants in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Cohort Study
“Other” types included unknown, hybrid, and missing diabetes type.

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