Aim: To investigate Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication rates using second-line bismuth-containing quadruple therapy and to identify predictors of eradication failure.
Methods: This study included 636 patients who failed first-line triple therapy and received 7 d of bismuth-containing quadruple therapy between January 2005 and December 2015. We retrospectively demonstrated H. pylori eradication rates with respect to the year of therapy as well as demographic and clinical factors. H. pylori eradication was confirmed by a 13C-urea breath test or a rapid urease test at least 4 wk after the completion of bismuth-based quadruple therapy: proton pump inhibitor, metronidazole, bismuth, and tetracycline.
Results: The overall eradication rates by intention-to-treat analysis and per-protocol analysis were 73.9% (95%CI: 70.1%-77.4%) and 94.5% (95%CI: 92.4%-96.5%), respectively. Annual eradication rates from 2005 to 2015 were 100.0%, 92.9%, 100.0%, 100.0%, 100.0%, 97.4%, 100.0%, 93.8%, 84.4%, 98.9%, and 92.5%, respectively, by per-protocol analysis. A multivariate analysis showed that diabetes mellitus (OR = 3.99, 95%CI: 1.56-10.20, P = 0.004) was associated with H. pylori eradication therapy failure.
Conclusion: The second-line bismuth-containing quadruple therapy for H. pylori infection is still effective in Korea, and diabetes mellitus is suggested to be a risk factor for eradication failure.
Keywords: Bismuth; Diabetes mellitus; Disease eradication; Helicobacter pylori; Treatment failure.