Objective: To investigate the effect of icariin total flavonoids capsules (ITFC) on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone histomorphometry in growing rats and its anti-osteoporosis mechanism. Methods: Thirty female SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups:normal control group, ITFC-1 group and ITFC-2 group. Rats in ITFC-1 group and ITFC-2 group were fed with 50 mg·kg-1·d-1 or 100 mg·kg-1·d-1 ITFC, respectively, and those in normal control group were fed with equal volume of distilled water. The whole body BMD was measured after 4, 8 and 12 weeks, and BMDs of the right femur and lumbar vertebrae were measured after 12 weeks. The serum levels of tartaric acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP 5b) and bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP) were measured by ELISA. Bone morphometry was performed on the right tibia. Results: There were no significant differences in the body weight increase between normal control group and two ITFC groups (all P>0.05). There were also no significant differences in whole body BMDs after 4 and 8 weeks between normal control group and ITFC groups (all P>0.05). After 12 weeks, the whole body BMD, BMD of bone in vitro, serum BALP level and trabecular area in ITFC-1 group and ITFC-2 group were significantly higher, trabecular separation was significantly lower than that in normal control group (all P<0.05); and the trabecular width and the number in ITFC-2 group were also significantly higher, and serum TRACP 5b level was significantly lower than that in normal control group (all P<0.05). The BMD of bone in vitro, serum BALP level, trabecular number and area in ITFC-2 group were significantly higher, and serum TRACP 5b level was significantly lower than that in ITFC-1 group (all P<0.05). Conclusion: ITFC can prevent osteoporosis by increasing bone density and bone formation, decreasing bone resorption and improving microstructure of bone.