Aging and lipotoxicity are two major risk factors for gout that are linked by the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Neutrophil-mediated production of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) drives gouty flares that cause joint destruction, intense pain, and fever. However, metabolites that impact neutrophil inflammasome remain unknown. Here, we identified that ketogenic diet (KD) increases β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and alleviates urate crystal-induced gout without impairing immune defense against bacterial infection. BHB inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome in S100A9 fibril-primed and urate crystal-activated macrophages, which serve to recruit inflammatory neutrophils in joints. Consistent with reduced gouty flares in rats fed a ketogenic diet, BHB blocked IL-1β in neutrophils in a NLRP3-dependent manner in mice and humans irrespective of age. Mechanistically, BHB inhibited the NLRP3 inflammasome in neutrophils by reducing priming and assembly steps. Collectively, our studies show that BHB, a known alternate metabolic fuel, is also an anti-inflammatory molecule that may serve as a treatment for gout.
Keywords: IL-1; NLRP3 inflammasome; aging; gout; inflammation; neutrophil; β-hydroxybutyrate.
Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.