Background: This study determined the cytotoxic effects of root and stem bark extracts, fractions, and isolated compounds derived from Pseudocedrela kotschyi on HeLa, MCF-7, and RD cells.
Materials and methods: The cytotoxic activity was determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay against three cell lines (RD, HeLa, and MCF 7) at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 1000 μg/mL. Isolation of crude saponin was done from the most active ethyl acetate fraction and further purified using vacuum liquid chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatographic techniques.
Results: The cytotoxicity assay revealed that the methanol extract from the root bark and the ethyl acetate fraction from the stem bark exhibited marked anticancer activity with IC50 of 87.36 μg/ml and 21.53 μg/ml, respectively, on HeLa cancer cell line and 101.51 μg/mL and 38.46 μg/mL, respectively, on RD cell line. These values are comparable with that obtained from vinblastine and methotrexate used as standard drugs (IC50 values of 0.01 μg/mL and 0.05 μg/mL, respectively). The isolated crude saponins also gave IC50 values of 5.28 μg/mL and 81.52 μg/mL against the RD cell lines and IC50values of 1.05 μg/mL and 86.8 μg/mL for the MCF 7 cancer cell lines. PTLC led to the isolation of a compound from the crude saponin which was identified as 7-deacetoxy-7-oxogedunin through spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data.
Conclusions: P. kotschyi could be considered as a potential source of chemotherapeutic agent. However, further research to determine the exact mechanism of action needs to be carried out.
Summary: Pseudocedrela kotschyi methanol extract from the root bark and the ethyl acetate fraction from the stem bark exhibited marked anticancer activity on HeLa, MCF-7, and RD cell lines7-deacetoxy-7-oxogedunin isolated as a white crystalline substance from the most active ethyl acetate fraction contributed to the observed activity. Abbreviations Used: MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide; TLC: Thin layer chromatography; VLC: Vacuum liquid chromatography; PTLC: Preparative thin layer chromatographic; NMR: Nuclear magnetic resonance; FBS: Fetal bovine serum; DMEM: Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium; PBS: Phosphate buffer saline; FHI: Forest Herbarium Ibadan; DMSO: Dimethylsuphoxide; SEM: Standard error of mean.
Keywords: 3-(4; 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2; 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay; 7-deacetoxy-7-oxogedunin; Cytotoxicity; HeLa; MCF-7; Pseudocedrela kotschyi; RD.