Radiotherapy using charged particles is characterized by a low dose to the surrounding healthy organs, while delivering a high dose to the tumor. However, interfractional anatomical changes can greatly affect the robustness of particle therapy. Therefore, we compared the dosimetric impact of interfractional anatomical changes (i.e. body contour differences and gastrointestinal gas volume changes) in photon, proton and carbon ion therapy for pancreatic cancer patients. In this retrospective planning study, photon, proton and carbon ion treatment plans were created for 9 patients. Fraction dose calculations were performed using daily cone-beam CT (CBCT) images. To this end, the planning CT was deformably registered to each CBCT; gastrointestinal gas volumes were delineated on the CBCTs and copied to the deformed CT. Fraction doses were accumulated rigidly. To compare planned and accumulated dose, dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters of the planned and accumulated dose of the different radiotherapy modalities were determined for the internal gross tumor volume, internal clinical target volume (iCTV) and organs-at-risk (OARs; duodenum, stomach, kidneys, liver and spinal cord). Photon plans were highly robust against interfractional anatomical changes. The difference between the planned and accumulated DVH parameters for the photon plans was less than 0.5% for the target and OARs. In both proton and carbon ion therapy, however, coverage of the iCTV was considerably reduced for the accumulated dose compared with the planned dose. The near-minimum dose ([Formula: see text]) of the iCTV reduced with 8% for proton therapy and with 10% for carbon ion therapy. The DVH parameters of the OARs differed less than 3% for both particle modalities. Fractionated radiotherapy using photons is highly robust against interfractional anatomical changes. In proton and carbon ion therapy, such changes can severely reduce the dose coverage of the target.