HIV-Associated Urogenital Malignancies

Oncol Res Treat. 2017;40(3):106-112. doi: 10.1159/000457130. Epub 2017 Feb 24.


Non-AIDS-defining malignancies (NADM) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for HIV-infected subjects. The risk of testicular germ cell cancer (GCC) and renal cell cancer is slightly increased in the setting of HIV, whereas there is a slightly decreased risk of prostate cancer and bladder cancer. As in industrialized countries the majority of people living with HIV are men, and people aged 55 and older now account for more than a quarter of persons living with HIV, both testis and prostate cancer are assumed to occur with increased frequency in HIV-infected subjects. Overall, treatments should be the same as in HIV-negative patients with urogenital malignancies. Since the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) the outcome appears to have improved due to a decrease in HIV-related deaths. HIV-infected men who are treated with standard therapies for GCC now have a similar cancer-free survival compared with their HIV-negative counterparts. Screening and treatment for prostate cancer should follow recommendations established for HIV-negative men. During radio- or chemotherapy patients should receive concurrent cART but the drug-drug interaction potential must be taken into account.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Retroviral Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Drug Therapy, Combination / methods
  • Drug Therapy, Combination / standards
  • Evidence-Based Medicine
  • HIV Infections / diagnosis*
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy*
  • HIV Infections / etiology
  • Humans
  • Medical Oncology / standards
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Urogenital Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Urogenital Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Urogenital Neoplasms / etiology


  • Anti-Retroviral Agents
  • Antineoplastic Agents