Background: Chronic exposure to fine ambient particulate matter (PM2.5) induces insulin resistance. CC-chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) appears to be essential in diet-induced insulin resistance implicating an important role for systemic cellular inflammation in the process. We have previously suggested that CCR2 is important in PM2.5 exposure-mediated inflammation leading to insulin resistance under high fat diet situation. The present study assessed the importance of CCR2 in PM2.5 exposure-induced insulin resistance in the context of normal diet.
Methods and results: C57BL/6 and CCR2-/- mice were subjected to exposure to concentrated ambient PM2.5 or filtered air for 6 months. In C57BL/6 mice, concentrated ambient PM2.5 exposure induced whole-body insulin resistance, macrophage infiltration into the adipose tissue, and upregulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in the liver. While CCR2 deficiency reduced adipose macrophage content in the PM2.5-exposed animals, it did not improve systemic insulin resistance. This lack of improvement in insulin resistance was paralleled by increased hepatic expression of genes in PEPCK and inflammation.
Conclusion: CCR2 deletion failed to attenuate PM2.5 exposure-induced insulin resistance in mice fed on normal diet. The present study indicates that PM2.5 may dysregulate glucose metabolism directly without exerting proinflammatory effects.
Keywords: CCR2; Gluconeogenesis; Inflammation; Insulin resistance; Normal diet; Particulate matter.