Human Papillomavirus infection and cervical lesions in HIV infected women on antiretroviral treatment in Thailand

J Infect. 2017 May;74(5):501-511. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2017.02.007. Epub 2017 Feb 28.


Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection, HPV genotypes and cytological/histological high-grade (HSIL+/CIN2+) lesions.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study within a prospective cohort of HIV-infected women on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Cervical specimens were collected for cytology and HPV genotyping (Papillocheck®). Any women with High-Risk-HPV (HR-HPV), and/or potentially HR-HPV (pHR-HPV) and/or ASC-US or higher (ASC-US+) lesions were referred for colposcopy. Factors associated with HR-HPV infection and with HSIL+/CIN2+ lesions were investigated using mixed-effects logistic regression models.

Results: 829 women were enrolled: median age 40.4 years, on cART for a median of 6.9 years, median CD4 cell-count 536 cells/mm3, and 788 (96%) with HIV-viral load<50copies/mL. Of 214 (26%) infected with HPV: 159 (19%) had ≥1 HR-HPV, of whom 38 (5%) HPV52, 22 (3%) HPV16, 9 (1%) HPV18; 21 (3%) had pHR-HPV, 34 (4%) low risk-HPV infection, and 56 (26%) had multiple genotypes. Younger age, low CD4 cell-counts and low education were independently associated with HR-HPV infection. 72 women (9%) had ASC-US+ and 28 (3%) HSIL+/CIN2+ lesions. HR-HPV infection was independently associated with HSIL+/CIN2+ lesions.

Conclusion: The prevalence of HPV infection and of cervical lesions was low. The HPV genotype distribution supports the use of 9-valent vaccine in Thailand.

Keywords: Antiretroviral therapy; Cancer; Cervical lesions; Cross-sectional study; HIV; HPV; Thailand; Women.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use
  • Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia* / complications
  • Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia* / epidemiology
  • Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia* / virology
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Genotype
  • HIV Infections* / complications
  • HIV Infections* / drug therapy
  • HIV Infections* / epidemiology
  • HIV Infections* / virology
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Papillomaviridae / genetics
  • Papillomavirus Infections* / complications
  • Papillomavirus Infections* / epidemiology
  • Papillomavirus Infections* / virology
  • Thailand / epidemiology
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms* / complications
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms* / epidemiology
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms* / virology


  • Anti-Retroviral Agents