The small RNA miR-375 - a pancreatic islet abundant miRNA with multiple roles in endocrine beta cell function

Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2017 Nov 15;456:95-101. doi: 10.1016/j.mce.2017.02.043. Epub 2017 Feb 27.

Abstract

The pathophysiology of diabetes is complex and recent research put focus on the pancreatic islets of Langerhans and the insulin-secreting beta cells as central in the development of the disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), the small non-coding RNAs regulating post-transcriptional gene expression, are significant regulators of beta cell function. One of the most abundant miRNAs in the islets is miR-375. This review focus on the role of miR-375 in beta cell function, including effects in development and differentiation, proliferation and regulation of insulin secretion. It also discusses the regulation of miR-375 expression, miR-375 as a potential circulating biomarker in type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and the need for the beta cell to keep expression of miR-375 within optimal levels. The summed picture of miR-375 is a miRNA with multiple functions with importance in the formation of beta cell identity, control of beta cell mass and regulation of insulin secretion.

Keywords: Beta cell; Diabetes; Differentiation; Insulin; Insulin secretion; Islet of langerhans; MicroRNA; Proliferation; miR-375.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Animals, Genetically Modified
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / genetics*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / pathology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / genetics*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / pathology
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Humans
  • Insulin / metabolism*
  • Insulin Secretion
  • Insulin-Secreting Cells / metabolism*
  • Insulin-Secreting Cells / pathology
  • Mice
  • MicroRNAs / genetics*
  • MicroRNAs / metabolism
  • Rats
  • Signal Transduction

Substances

  • Insulin
  • MIRN375 microRNA, human
  • MicroRNAs