Osteopontin (OPN) is an extracellular matrix protein that is overexpressed in various cancers and promotes oncogenic features including cell proliferation, survival, migration, and angiogenesis, among others. OPN can participate in the regulation of the tumor microenvironment, affecting both cancer and neighboring cells. Here, we review the roles of OPN splice variants (a, b, c) in cancer development, progression, and prognosis, and also discuss the identities of isoforms 4 and 5. We also discussed how single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the OPN gene are an additional factor influencing the level of OPN in individuals, modulating the risks of cancer development and outcome.
Keywords: Alternative splicing isoforms; Malignancy; Prognosis; Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs); Spp1.
Published by Elsevier B.V.