Increase in Peripheral Blood Intermediate Monocytes is Associated with the Development of Recent-Onset Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Children

Int J Biol Sci. 2017 Feb 5;13(2):209-218. doi: 10.7150/ijbs.15659. eCollection 2017.


Monocytes play important roles in antigen presentation and cytokine production to achieve a proper immune response, and are therefore largely implicated in the development and progression of autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to analyze the change in the intermediate (CD14+CD16+) monocyte subset in children with recent-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and its possible association with clinical parameters reflecting islet β-cell dysfunction. Compared with age- and sex-matched healthy controls, intermediate monocytes were expanded in children with T1DM, which was positively associated with hemoglobin A1C and negatively associated with serum insulin and C-peptide. Interestingly, the intermediate monocytes in T1DM patients expressed higher levels of human leukocyte antigen-DR and CD86, suggesting better antigen presentation capability. Further analysis revealed that the frequency of CD45RO+CD4+ memory T cells was increased in the T1DM patients, and the memory T cell content was well correlated with the increase in intermediate monocytes. These results suggest that expanded intermediate monocytes are a predictive factor for the poor residual islet β-cell function in children with recent-onset T1DM.

Keywords: Children; Intermediate Monocytes; Islet Beta Cell Function; Memory T cells.; Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • C-Peptide / blood
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / metabolism
  • Child
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / immunology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / metabolism*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood
  • Insulin-Secreting Cells / metabolism
  • Lipopolysaccharide Receptors / metabolism
  • Male
  • Monocytes / immunology
  • Monocytes / metabolism*
  • Receptors, IgG / metabolism


  • C-Peptide
  • Insulin
  • Lipopolysaccharide Receptors
  • Receptors, IgG