Previous studies have shown that CD61 (integrin-β3) promotes the differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) into germ-like cells. However, the mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we showed that overexpression of CD61 in canine adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (cADMSCs) promotes their differentiation into primordial germ cell (PGC)-like cells. Quantitative real-time PCR, immunocytochemistry and western blot detected higher levels of PGC-specific markers in CD61-overexpressed cADMSCs compared with those in control cells. Moreover, phosphorylation of Smad2, a downstream mediator of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), was increased in CD61-overexpressed cADMSCs than that in control cells. However, the expression of PGC-specific markers was downregulated in cADMSCs treated with a TGF-β inhibitor. These results suggested that CD61 could induce cADMSCs to differentiate into PGC-like cells by relying on the activation of TGF-β pathway. ADMSCs possess a considerable potential in treating the infertility of rare animal species.